Answer: To some extent the maximum size will depend on the variety you are growing and the weather conditions as well as the general care they receive. You will notice that they begin to change color when they have reached their maximum size, but they can be picked earlier. Most people seem to grow the banana peppers for both their decorative color and the fact that while they are a bit hot, they are still fairly sweet compared to the truly hot peppers. As they mature they seem to flavor a bit, at least as far as my taste buds tell. You can always check and see by tasting a younger one and a larger one and harvest when they seem ready to you.
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