Answer: You can grow many types of vegetables in containers as well as strawberries and if you have room for large tubs, you might be able to grow some of the very dwarf fruit trees. You might find the following book helpful: "Container Gardening for Dummies" by Bill Marken, ISBN 0-7645-5057-8. In it you will find detailed instructions on selecting, planting, maintaining and harvesting herbs, fruits, vegetables, and flowers as well as trees and shrubs for containers.
The National Gardening Association web site has an archive of articles as well as a searchable Q&A where you will find information about planting and container gardening as well as gardening in general. You might also find the following website specifically about gardening with children useful: http://www.kidsgardening.com -- it includes many suggestions for gardening with children as well as some interactive features you might enjoy.
Q&A Library Searching Tips