Answer: Established weeds can be hard to control. Apart from pulling them (it's easier to get the root if the soil is damp), you can try to smother them by cutting them off at the ground, then covering them with cardboard or several layers of damp newspaper, followed by mulch. Earlier in the season it is possible to use corn gluten to inhibit weed germination and eventually provide a bit of nutrient value as it breaks down, but it will also inhibit vegetable seeds as will any other similar product. Herbicides also tend to be nonspecific and will kill your vegetables as well as the weeds, so prevention is really the best thing to do. Mulch is a very good weed preventive and has the added benefit of improving and feeding the soil as it breaks down over time.
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