Answer: You may harvest the spears as long as they are at least the diameter of a pencil and continue for about two months time. Then allow them all to grow to replenish the plant's strength. Asparagus does well with a heavy feeding of compost and/or well rotted manure in late fall along with an organic mulch for the winter. In spring, apply additional compost and/or a granular complete fertilizer such as 10-10-10 according to the instructions on the label. A summer mulch is also beneficial. Soil tests would tell you if any additional nutrients or pH adjustment is required. Your county extension should be able to help you with the tests and interpreting the results.
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