Answer: If you're trying to maintain a plant that's generally in good shape, prune in spring before growth begins. For a formal look, shear the plants; for a more natural look, prune back individual branches with pruning shears. To maintain a tidy appearance, prune lightly in midsummer as well.
Juniper will resprout new branches from older portions of wood that no longer carry leaves. You can cut overgrown plants back relatively severely, and the branches will resprout.
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