Satsumas ripen before they turn fully orange. In fact I have tasted some that appeared to be halfway between green and orange that were quite good. Varieties will differ quite a bit in their ripening time, with some ripening in early to mid fall and others in late fall.
Sample a fruit when you see a lot of orange in the rind color to get a feel for how ripe they are. This will tell you when your variety is ripening and what a ripe fruit looks like. However there is no rush to pick the fruit off of the tree. If you leave them on the tree they will continue to turn a little more orange and quality will remain good for a month or more during the cool fall to early winter weather. Harvest before a hard freeze.
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