Answer: There are some yuccas that will grow fine in Missouri so it is certainly possible. They tend to suffer some winter damage to the foliage and look a bit rough by spring, but the new growth soon conceals the tattered old foliage.
I am not sure why you want to put them in pots. I would not recommend trying to grow one as a houseplant because they need full sun to stay healthy and indoor conditions just are not bright enough for them. If you want a somewhat similar looking house plant you could try one of the many types of dracaena, for example.
If you did try potting one though, keep in mind these are very deep rooted plants. Rather than take the whole thing, I would suggest you try to separate off a pup from the perimeter, taking as much of its root with it as you can. I would dig it in the spring rather than now.
I would use a well drained soil mix such as cactus mix or a good quality soilless potting mix with a bit of coarse sand added. (Do not use one with a water holding polymer in it.) Use a pot that is large enough to hold the root. Water sparingly in winter, a bit more generously in summer when it is actively growing. Fertilize lightly in early spring only, use a slow release granular fertilizer for container plants with an analysis such as 10-10-10 plus minors. This plant does fine in average to poor soil so do not overfeed it.
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