Answer: You didn't say how long your peony has been planted and whether or not it flowered last year. Peonies can fail to bloom if they're planted too deeply, if they were recently moved (or planted), if they're not getting all day sunshine, or if they did not experience a winter chill. Here's some general information on growing peonies:
Peony clumps should be divided only when absolutely necessary because they resent being disturbed once they become established. Peonies grow from thickened, tuberous roots. They like most soils, but perform best when you first prepare the soil by digging down at least 1 1/2 feet and amending the soil with aged-manure or compost. This will give the roots the rich, loose soil they crave and will result in better top growth and abundant flowers. Plant the roots in the fall, making sure that the buds are no more than about two inches below the soil surface. If you plant them deeper, they may fail to bloom. Add a support stake to the hole while you're planting so you can tie the stems as they grow. (Sometimes the flowers get so heavy they pull the stems down.) Divide in the fall, after the foliage dies down. Peonies require regular summer watering; make sure that the entire rootmass is thoroughly saturated when you water each week. Peonies are heavy feeders, so you can feed your plants in the spring with a high-phosphate fertilizer, such as bone meal, and in midsummer with a balanced fertilizer, such as a 5-5-5. The phosphorus helps promote flowering and the balanced fertilizer supplements overall growth.
Hope this information helps you determine why your peony didn't bloom this year.
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