While it is not the easiest way to propagate bamboo, many types of bamboo can be rooted from stem cuttings. There is a lot of variability in success from one species of bamboo to the next. Generally a one or two node section is removed and the bottom node is dipped in rooting hormone and then placed an inch or so below the ground. Keep the soil moist and if you're lucky in a month or two your stem cutting will be starting to root.
The following web site has a lot of helpful info on propagating bamboo:
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