Answer: How your plants will be affected really depends upon how deeply the gnawing went. There's not much to do at this point, except to brush the soil away from the wounds (so excess moisture isn't held against the exposed wood) so they can heal. With any luck, new bark will eventually encase the damage.
To prevent damage like this again, I'd suggest mesh wire protection wrapped around the trunks of the most vulnerable trees and shrubs.
Best wishes with your landscape!
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