In order to take an old sparse oleander bush and make it fresher and fuller you can prune it can be pruned most any time of the year except late summer to fall as this can result in late season growth that is much more cold sensitive. The plants can be given a light shearing or cut all the way to the ground and the plant will respond with vigorous new growth. That said, keep in mind that oleanders bloom on new growth as bloom buds develop near the end of the shoots. In central Texas, the best time to prune if you don't want to affect flowering is in early spring so the plants have plenty of time to regrow, set buds and bloom. Pruning in late spring or summer will be removing bloom buds and will delay or can even eliminate the current year's blooming.
Fertilize the plants with a turf type fertilizer product at the same rate you would your lawn. Then water the fertilizer in well. Increase the rate slightly if the plants seem to be lacking green color and vigor.
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