Answer: Cutting the ferns in the spring should be fine, that would not be the problem. It is possible you may have weakened it somewhat if you overharvested the previous year. Asparagus grows in the same spot year after year so you need to pay special attention to the soil -- especially since the growing season is so short, the plants need to grow as robustly as possible. Adequate fertility and adequate water are both needed for healthy growth. I would suggest you run some basic soil tests to check fertility and pH and fertilize according to the test results. Your University of Wyoming Cooperative Extension Service should be able to help you with the testing and interpreting the results. Also be sure to topdress once a year (or twice) with good quality compost and use an organic mulch to help feed the soil slowly over time on an ongoing basis as it breaks down. The mulch will also help reduce your watering needs. Finally, keep the asparagus weeded to avoid competion. Here is the contact information for your extension service.
I hope this helps with your harvest next year!
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