Gardenias can be cut back very lightly throughout the year to shape plants and remove gangly shoots growing out of bounds. However they actually need very little pruning. They bloom in spring and early summer, so heavy pruning from now until their spring bloom time will reduce the amount of bloom buds waiting to open. If heavier pruning is needed you may want to either forgo the next season's bloom and prune in winter or try to do some moderate pruning after the bloom season ends.
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