Answer: Vines on a wood fence can shorten its life by holding moisture against the wood, thereby promoting decay. Some vines have root type structures that attach to the wood to anchor the vine. These also can contribute to decay by trapping rainwater and slowing evaporative drying.
Cedar is a great, decay resistant wood. Your vines will not be a short term problem. But looking many years down the line, could cause the fence to decline a bit faster. You'll have to decide for yourself, but I'd rather go with the beautiful vines than have an extra few years to look at the grey, aged cedar fence!
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