By National Gardening Association Editors
- Plant in late winter or early spring.
- Select plants that are bare-root or rooted in soil.
- Buy only certified virus-free plants. Black raspberries are especially vulnerable to disease, so plant resistant varieties when possible.
- Summer-bearers should yield some berries in their second year and then full crops each succeeding summer. Everbearers may produce some fruit the first fall.
- Select a site in full sun; avoid frost pockets.
- Eliminate perennial weeds, preferably with a cover crop planted 1 year in advance. Mix in 1 to 2 pounds of 10-10-10 fertilizer for every 20 feet of row or plenty of manure in early spring before you plant.
- Destroy neighboring wild raspberries or blackberries to prevent disease from spreading to your plants.
- Set plants in the garden an inch or two deeper than previously grown. Space plants 3 feet apart in rows 6 to 7 feet apart. Allow red and yellow raspberries to fill in a hedgerow not more than 2 feet wide (some purples will also create a hedgerow); blackcaps and most purples will remain as separate plants.
- Cut black raspberry canes back to ground level; leave an 8-inch handle on others. Water well.
- Keep the aisles between rows tilled bare or plant grass and keep it mowed.
- Cultivate to control weeds early the first summer, then mulch thickly. Once the plants are established, maintain a layer of mulch 4 to 8 inches deep year-round.
- Dig or till up suckers that spread beyond row boundaries.
- Erect a T-trellis if your canes don't stand up on their own.
- Prune during the dormant season. Remove dead and weak canes; thin out the healthiest ones. Blackcaps must also be summer-topped.
- See our article Fruit Pests and Diseases for controls of common raspberry pests such as cane borers, crown borer, and anthracnose disease.
- Berries usually ripen over a period of 2 to 3 weeks during early summer; everbearers yield again for several weeks in early fall.
- When they slide easily off the small white core, berries are ripe.
- Pick into small containers so bottom berries are not crushed.