Muskmelons are the most popular type of melons grown and eaten in the United States. Most of us call them cantaloupes, but those round, sweet, mostly orange-fleshed melons that we find in supermarkets are actually not cantaloupes at all, they are technically muskmelons. What's the difference?
Although both types of melons are in the Cucurbitaceae family, cantaloupes are actually a small, warty tropical melon seldom found in U.S. markets. While other types of melons, such as honeydew, casaba and charentais, are becoming more popular in specialty farmers' stands and markets, the muskmelon is still the king of the sweet melons.
The key to producing great melons is choosing the right varieties and growing them well. Here are some of the best muskmelon varieties to plant in your garden and some tips on proper growing techniques.
'Earli Star Hybrid' - This 2- to 3-pound, early variety features sweet, dark salmon-colored flesh. The plants are tolerant of powdery mildew disease.
'Hale's Best #36' - A standard muskmelon variety with early, 2- to 3-pound fruits with spicy salmon-colored flesh. A more powdery-mildew resistant version is 'Mildew-Resistant #45'.
'Rocky Ford' - This late melon features 5-inch-diameter fruits with a sweet, spicy, green flesh.
'Sugar Queen Hybrid' - This large plant produces huge, 6- to 10-pound fruits with weet orange flesh.
'Super 45 Hybrid' - This 3-pound, heavily netted variety has thick, sweet, salmon-colored flesh. The fruits resist cracking and have a good shelf life.
'Superstar Hybrid' - These large, 6- to 8-pound, heavily netted fruits are sweet and flavorful.
'Tekos Hybrid' - This variety is very productive, with 3- to 4-pound fruits early in the season.
Muskmelons are a warm-season crop that loves the heat and moisture. Don't plant them before the soil temperatures are at least 60 degrees F. In northern and cool climates, build raised beds on all but sandy soils. Amend the soil with compost. Lay dark green or black plastic mulch over the beds two weeks before planting to heat up the soil.
Make holes in the plastic 2 feet apart in rows 2 feet apart, and place 3 seeds or one transplant per hole. Once the seeds have germinated, thin them to leave the strongest seedling. Early in the season, cover seedlings with a floating row cover to protect young plants from cold nights and winds. Once the vines begin to run, side-dress with an all-purpose fertilizer and remove the row covers to let bees pollinate the flowers. If fruits don't form or rot before getting large, they may not have been properly pollinated. Plant flowers and herbs around the melons to attract more bees to your patch to insure proper pollination.
Keep plants well watered and weeded. When the melons have sized up and started changing color, reduce watering. Too much watering around harvest time can reduce the sweetness of the fruits. Harvest when the melons naturally off the vine when gently lifted.
Q: My broccoli transplants were looking great. Then I noticed a number of small holes in the leaves. I don't see any worms. What's causing this damage?
A: Your broccoli transplants are being attacked by flea beetles. These small, shiny, black beetles attack young transplants. They tend to hop like fleas off the leaves when disturbed, hence their name. Their feeding creates small shotgun-like holes in the leaves. If you only have a few holes, then your plants should be able to outgrow the damage. However, if there are many holes, the damage may stunt or eventually kill the plant.
To control flea beetles, remove plant debris in the soil around the plants. Keep the garden beds moist, cultivate the soil often, and spray the leaves with insecticidal soap or dust with diatomaceous earth.
Article published on June 24, 2008.