The Main Plant entry for Spruces (Picea)

This database entry exists to show plant data and photos that apply generically to all Spruces.

General Plant Information (Edit)
Plant Habit: Tree
Life cycle: Perennial
Sun Requirements: Full Sun
Water Preferences: Wet
Wet Mesic
Dry Mesic
Soil pH Preferences: Strongly acid (5.1 – 5.5)
Moderately acid (5.6 – 6.0)
Slightly acid (6.1 – 6.5)
Neutral (6.6 – 7.3)
Leaves: Evergreen
Fruit: Other: female cones with papery or thin woody scales
Fruiting Time: Late summer or early fall
Late fall or early winter
Flowers: Other: soft male cones
Flower Time: Spring
Uses: Windbreak or Hedge
Provides winter interest
Resistances: Deer Resistant
Rabbit Resistant
Propagation: Seeds: Can handle transplanting
Other info: Seeds are inside cones
Pollinators: Wind
Miscellaneous: Monoecious

Common names
  • Spruce

Photo Gallery
Location: Cache Valley
Date: 2017-01-26
Location: Michigan
Date:           Spring 2021
Location: Morton Arboretum in Lisle, Illinois
Date: 2016-07-18
Red Spruce cones and twigs
Location: Aurora, Illinois
Date: 2012-12-23
Norway Spruce cones and twigs

Date: 2022-04-01
Location: White Haven, Pennsylvania
Date: 2016-09-13
looking up trunk of Red Spruce
Location: Thomas Darling Preserve in northern Pennsylvania
Date: 2016-09-13
Red Spruce (Picea rubens) tree
Location: Downingtown, Pennsylvania
Date: 2010-01-08
Norway Spruce (Picea abies) tree
Location: Downingtown, Pennsylvania
Date: 2009-12-20
Colorado Spruce (Picea pungens) tree
Location: West Chester, Pennsylvania
Date: 2010-11-10
Serbian Spruce (Picea omorika) tree
Location: Downingtown, Pennsylvania
Date: 2016-07-18
3 Black Spruce cones above & 2 Red Spruce cones below
Location: Gilbert, AZ
Date: 2/25/17
Location: City Creek Canyon, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
Date: 2020-04-09
Location: central Illinois
Date: 2015-02-22
Location: Wheaton, Illinois
Date: 2018-08-22
White Spruce (Picea glauca) tree
Location: Tyler Arboretum near Media, Pennsylvania
Date: 2010-01-09
Oriental Spruce (Picea orientalis) tree from Turkey
Location: central Illinois
Date: 2015-02-16
Think it's a Blue Spruce in it's winter coat.
Location: near Pottstown, PA
Date: 2016-08-17
White Spruce cones and twigs
Location: Morton Arboretum in Lisle, Illinois
Date: 2018-08-22
top of Black Spruce with cones
Location: Soda Springs, Idaho, United States
Date: 2021-08-22
Location: Sunken Garden, Lava Hot Springs, Idaho, United States
Date: 2021-08-22
Location: University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
Date: 2021-09-20
Location: Banff, Canada | August, 2022
Date: 2022-08-01
Location: Banff, Canada | August, 2022
Date: 2022-08-01
This plant is tagged in:
Image Image

  • Posted by ILPARW (southeast Pennsylvania - Zone 6b) on Oct 16, 2018 11:20 AM concerning plant:
    There are about 30 to 40 species of this genus of conifers (Picea) in the Pine Family (Pinaceae). Spruces have rigid, from very prickly to soft and slightly prickly, evergreen needles that grow singly from persistent woody peg-like bases on the twigs. The pendant seed cones are made of papery to light woody scales, and the whole cone falls to the ground after releasing seed. The bark of spruces does not differ much among the species and is relatively thin and gray-brown to brown and scaly. The trees grow in a pyramidal habit from narrow to broad. These conifers are monoecious with both the pollinate (male) and seed (female) cones on the same tree, and usually the seed cones are towards the top of the tree. Spruces grow in the temperate parts of North America and Eurasia. Seven species are native to North America: the Black, Red, White, Engelman, Colorado, Sitka, and Brewer. Their habitat ranges from bogs, swamps, and along watercourses to up mountain slopes. Branch mutations have been propagated from various spruce species to create cultivars that are dwarf trees, bushes, or even groundcovers. They make good to high quality landscape plants.
  • Posted by Marilyn (Kentucky - Zone 6a) on May 21, 2013 1:47 AM concerning plant:
    "A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the Family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the earth. Spruces are large trees, from 66–200 feet tall when mature, and can be distinguished by their whorled branches and conical form. The needles, or leaves, of spruce trees are attached singly to the branches in a spiral fashion, each needle on a small peg-like structure called a pulvinus. The needles are shed when 4–10 years old, leaving the branches rough with the retained pulvinus (an easy means of distinguishing them from other similar genera, where the branches are fairly smooth).

    Spruces are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species; see list of Lepidoptera that feed on spruces. They are also used by the larvae of gall adelgids (Adelges species).

    In the mountains of western Sweden scientists have found a Norway Spruce tree, nicknamed Old Tjikko, which by reproducing through layering has reached an age of 9,550 years and is claimed to be the world's oldest known living tree."

    Taken from wikipedia's page at:

« Add a new plant to the database

« The Plants Database Front Page

Today's site banner is by Newyorkrita and is called "Rose Francois Rabelais"

This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply.