General Plant Information (Edit)
Plant Habit: Tree
Life cycle: Perennial
Sun Requirements: Full Sun
Full Sun to Partial Shade
Water Preferences: Wet
Wet Mesic
Mesic
Dry Mesic
Dry
Soil pH Preferences: Very strongly acid (4.5 – 5.0)
Strongly acid (5.1 – 5.5)
Moderately acid (5.6 – 6.0)
Slightly acid (6.1 – 6.5)
Neutral (6.6 – 7.3)
Slightly alkaline (7.4 – 7.8)
Moderately alkaline (7.9 – 8.4)
Minimum cold hardiness: Zone 2 -45.6 °C (-50 °F) to -42.8 °C (-45°F)
Maximum recommended zone: Zone 6b
Plant Height: 40-160 feet
Plant Spread: 15-20 feet
Leaves: Unusual foliage color
Evergreen
Fragrant
Needled
Other: Blue-green needles with sharp tips.
Fruit: Other: Cones up to 2.5 inches long with thin flexible scales are green to violet, ripening to pale buff.
Fruiting Time: Late summer or early fall
Fall
Late fall or early winter
Winter
Flower Color: Green
Red
Yellow
Bloom Size: Under 1"
Flower Time: Spring
Late spring or early summer
Suitable Locations: Xeriscapic
Uses: Windbreak or Hedge
Provides winter interest
Useful for timber production
Wildlife Attractant: Bees
Birds
Butterflies
Resistances: Deer Resistant
Rabbit Resistant
Drought tolerant
Propagation: Seeds: Needs specific temperature: 50ºF-75ºF
Days to germinate: 30-65 days
Sow in situ
Start indoors
Can handle transplanting
Other info: Seeds are inside cones
Propagation: Other methods: Cuttings: Stem
Layering
Pollinators: Wind
Containers: Not suitable for containers
Miscellaneous: Tolerates poor soil
Monoecious

Image
Common names
  • White Spruce
  • Black Hills Spruce
  • Canadian Spruce
  • Spruce

Photo Gallery
Location: My Gardens
Date: February 7, 2014
A Blue Jay Rests In the Branches #Birds
Location: Frasier, Pennsylvania
Date: 2018-10-18
cones at top of tree
Location: Reading, Pennsylvania
Date: 2024-01-06
two mature trees during a slight snowstorm
Location: Muskoka, Ontario
Date: July 2021
Young seedling growing in a gap between two birch trunks
Location: My garden
Date: 2011-12-15
Location: My garden
Date: 2011-12-12
Location: My Gardens
Date: February 13, 2010
Snow  & Frost Cover The Branches
Location: Frasier, Pennsylvania
Date: 2018-10-18
line of trees planted at Philadelphia Park Cemetery
Location: Frasier, Pennsylvania
Date: 2018-10-18
foliage and cones
Location: Reading, Pennsylvania
Date: 2009-12-24
first of two trees on hill in landscape
Location: Aurora, Illinois
Date: 2012-12-12
maturing specimen at a park
Location: Home
Location: Downingtown, Pennsylvania
Date: 2020-03-08
trunk
Location: Natural Area in Northeastern Indiana
Date: Sep 28, 2011 1:19 PM
Location: Wheaton, Illinois
Date: 2018-08-26
specimen planted at townhouse neighborhood
Location: Simcoe County, Ontario
Date: March 2021
Mature bark
Location: West Chester, Pennsylvania
Date: 2011-03-29
two planted mature specimens
Location: Downingtown, Pennsylvania
Date: 2007-02-03
a lone full-grown tree
Location: West Chester, Pennsylvania
Date: 2011-03-29
the light colored twigs and needles
Location: southeast Pennylvania
Date: 2016-08-17
lots of cones on a still young planted tree
Location: My zone 3a garden
Date: 2010-11-23
The spruce tree provides winter shelter for this Steller's Jay
Location: Hollis, New Hampshire
Date: August 11, 2013
Location: Hollis, New Hampshire
Date: August 11, 2013
Location: My garden
Date: 2011-12-12
Location: My garden
Date: 2011-12-15
Location: My garden
Date: 2011-12-11
Location: My zone 3a garden
Date: 2012-02-16
White spruce seeds.
Location: Luca's Nursery, Ypsilanti, MI
Date: 2010-06-10
Location: Luca's Nursery, Ypsilanti, MI
Date: 2010-06-10
Location: Downingtown, Pennsylvania
Date: 2020-03-08
mature tree in back yard
Location: Luca's Nursery, Ypsilanti, MI
Date: 2010-06-10
Location: Downingtown, Pennsylvania
Date: 2020-03-08
tiny cones on tree with foliage
Location: Luca's Nursery, Ypsilanti, MI
Date: 2010-06-10
Location: Downingtown, Pennsylvania
Date: 2020-03-08
small 1 inch cones on sidewalk
Location: Downingtown, Pennsylvania
Date: 2020-03-08
foliage-needles
Location: My Northeastern Indiana Gardens - Zone 5
Date: 2011-09-30
Young Tree
This plant is tagged in:
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Comments:
  • Posted by ILPARW (southeast Pennsylvania - Zone 6b) on Dec 3, 2017 7:27 PM concerning plant:
    This spruce is not planted as much in landscapes as the Colorado or Norway Spruces in the Mid-Atlantic or Midwest, but it is the third most common. It is really a very northern species that grows through most of all Canada and Alaska, plus northern New England, northern New York, and northern Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. Its needles are about 1 inch long and bluish-green and are stiff, but not really hurtful. Its cones are cylindrical and about 1.0 to 1.5 inches long, to 2.5 inches long, with thin, woody, but flexible scales. White Spruce grows about 1.5 feet/year and lives about 250 to 300 years. it is very adaptable to soils ranging from very acid to alkaline, pH 4.5 to 8.0. and sort of draining wet to well-drained. It does well south of its native range down into Zone 7. Recently in 2021 a very professional landscape architect who specializes in more naturalistic landscapes warned me that in southeast Pennsylvania, due to global warming, that some White Spruce have suffered and declined from the warmer temperatures and such humid, wet summers. (It has not been as bad as for the more commonly planted Colorado Spruce where I have seen many mature specimens of over 30 years old die out from the recent summers of warmer temperatures, greater humidity, and water-soaked soils.)
  • Posted by mcash70 (Near Kamloops, BC, Canada - Zone 3a) on Dec 18, 2011 11:29 PM concerning plant:
    A straight, tall tree easily recognized by its needles. Cones always hang down. Beautiful year-round color.
    White spruces are very important evergreens. Besides providing nesting sites and shelter, white spruces provide food for many kinds of wildlife. Crossbills, evening Grosbeaks and red-breasted nuthatches prefer the seeds. The foliage is eaten by grouse, rabbits and deer. Red squirrels cut open cones to eat the seeds, and they feast upon young, tender spruce shoots. The bark is enjoyed by both porcupines and black bears, sometimes to the detriment of the trees.

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