Toadshade (Trillium sessile) in the Trilliums Database

Common names:
Give a thumbs up Toadshade
Give a thumbs up Red Trillium
Give a thumbs up Wood Lily
Give a thumbs up Wake-robin
Give a thumbs up Birthroot
Give a thumbs up Toad Trillium
Give a thumbs up American Wood Lily
Give a thumbs up Sessile Trillium
Give a thumbs up Sessile Wake Robin

General Plant Information (Edit)
Plant Habit: Herb/Forb
Life cycle: Perennial
Sun Requirements: Partial or Dappled Shade
Partial Shade to Full Shade
Water Preferences: Mesic
Maximum recommended zone: Zone 8b
Plant Height: 6 - 12 inches
Plant Spread: 6 - 12 inches
Leaves: Unusual foliage color
Spring ephemeral
Other: The above ground parts of Trilliums are scapes with three large, leaf-like bracts with the true leaves reduced to underground papery coverings around the rhizomes.
Flowers: Showy
Flower Color: Red
Bloom Size: 1"-2"
Flower Time: Spring
Underground structures: Rhizome
Uses: Groundcover
Will Naturalize
Propagation: Seeds: Stratify seeds: Seeds need alternating periods of warm and cold stratification to germinate
Sow in situ
Seeds are hydrophilic
Other info: Plants can be grown from seed, but it can take up to two years for fresh seed to germinate and another five to seven years for plants to bloom.
Propagation: Other methods: Division
Other: Trilliums are not bulbs and don't like drying out. They lose all living roots and will become limp and have little chance of surviving beyond the first season if bare rooted for any time.
Pollinators: Various insects

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The Top 50 All Things Plants WildflowersThe Top 50 All Things Plants Wildflowers
October 18, 2014

It's hard to figure out which plants are wildflowers and which ones aren't, so lists like these are hard to come up with. Nevertheless, with help from our members we made a list of areas of the database that qualify, and here's the top 50 most popular species from among them!

(Full article12 comments)
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Photo gallery:
Location: my garden, Gent, BelgiumDate: Apr 2, 2007 2:38 PM
By bonitin
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Location: my garden, Gent, BelgiumDate: Apr 2, 2007 2:39 PM
By bonitin
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Location: Natural Area in Northeastern IndianaDate: 2012-03-25
By chelle
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By Seedsower
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Location: Natural Area in Northeastern IndianaDate: 2012-03-25
By chelle
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USFW
By SongofJoy
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Courtesy Gardens in the Wood of Grassy Creek
By vic
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By snarfie
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Date: 2009-02-27USDA
By admin
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Photo Courtesy of Lazy S'S Farm Nursery.
By Joy
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Photo Courtesy of Lazy S'S Farm Nursery.
By Joy
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Comments:
Posted by jmorth (central Illinois) on Nov 25, 2011 8:57 PM

Trillium received the name Birthroot because pioneers understood that Indians used plant to induce labor. This has never been verified. However, Indians did employ it extensively to treat open sores and wounds, even for interior bleeding. Menomini Indians used freshly dug roots to make a wet dressing for eye inflammation. Other tribes used roots to treat sore nipples (Potawatomi) and as ear drops (Chippewas).

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Posted by Sharon (Calvert City, KY - Zone 7a) on Dec 3, 2011 1:28 AM

Birthroot still remains a folk cure for bleeding and skin irritations. Studies indicate that it probably acts as an external astringent and might help external bleeding.

The leaves still sometimes serve as a potherb or salad green in Appalachia.

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Posted by Marilyn (Northern KY - Zone 6a) on May 25, 2013 4:06 AM

"Trillium sessile (Toadshade or Sessile-flowered wake-robin) is a perennial spring wildflower native to the central part of the eastern United States and the Ozarks. It is a small trillium (rarely over 9 cm tall). Toadshade can be distinguished from other trilliums by its single foul smelling, stalkless, flower nestled in the middle of its three leaves. The three maroon petals, maintain a "closed" posture throughout its presence, the petals are occasionally pale green. The leaves are sometimes, but not always mottled with shades of light and dark green. Its species name comes from the Latin word sessilis which means low sitting, and refers to its stalkless flower.

Trillium sessile is most common in rich moist woods but also can be found in rich forests, limestone woods, flood plains, along fence rows. It is persistent under light pasturing. The foul smelling flowers attract its primary pollinators, flies and beetles. The flowers are present from April-June. This plant is clump forming from a thick rhizome. The above ground parts of the plant die back by mid-summer, but may persist longer in areas that do not completely dry out.

Toadshade is listed as state threatened in Michigan and state endangered in New York; both states are on the northern edge of its range."

Taken from wikipedia's page at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T...

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Plant Events from our members
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Discussion Threads about this plant
Thread Title Last Reply Replies
Spring 2018 by HollyAnnS May 20, 2018 6:49 PM 78
First Flowers of Spring 2017 by greenthumb99 May 26, 2017 5:35 PM 294
First Flowers of Spring 2016 by meiramalka May 27, 2016 11:06 AM 133
Yardening in the Mid-Atlantic by Eric4home Sep 17, 2019 7:04 AM 3,104
What's blooming already? by wildflowers Jun 16, 2012 5:07 PM 102

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