Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis)

Common names:
Give a thumbs up Eastern Hemlock
Give a thumbs up Canadian Hemlock

General Plant Information (Edit)
Plant Habit: Tree
Life cycle: Perennial
Sun Requirements: Full Sun
Full Sun to Partial Shade
Partial or Dappled Shade
Partial Shade to Full Shade
Water Preferences: Wet Mesic
Mesic
Soil pH Preferences: Very strongly acid (4.5 – 5.0)
Strongly acid (5.1 – 5.5)
Moderately acid (5.6 – 6.0)
Slightly acid (6.1 – 6.5)
Neutral (6.6 – 7.3)
Minimum cold hardiness: Zone 3 -40 °C (-40 °F) to -37.2 °C (-35)
Maximum recommended zone: Zone 7b
Plant Height: 40 to 70 feet
Plant Spread: 25 to 35 feet
Leaves: Evergreen
Needled
Fruit: Other: tiny brown cones
Fruiting Time: Late summer or early fall
Fall
Late fall or early winter
Winter
Flowers: Other: tiny soft yellowish male and green female cones
Flower Color: Green
Yellow
Flower Time: Late spring or early summer
Underground structures: Taproot
Uses: Windbreak or Hedge
Provides winter interest
Wildlife Attractant: Birds
Butterflies
Other Beneficial Insects
Resistances: Deer Resistant
Humidity tolerant
Propagation: Seeds: Stratify seeds: cold strat at 40 degrees or so for 2 to 4 months
Pollinators: Wind
Miscellaneous: Monoecious
Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT)

Conservation status:
Conservation status: Near Threatened
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Comments:
Posted by ILPARW (southeast Pennsylvania - Zone 6b) on Jan 21, 2018 7:48 PM

The Eastern or Canadian Hemlock is a beautiful conifer in the Pine Family. It grows in forests and in cool, moist locations on and around slopes, hills, ravines, hollows from Nova Scotia and southeast Canada, New England down the Appalachian Region into northern Georgia and a little into Alabama, also in northern Michigan & Wisconsin. It has tiny, round-tipped, flat , soft needles directly attached to the twigs. It bears tiny soft yellowish male cones and pale green female cones in late May and early June. The female cones persist and become the tiny brown cones about 3/4 inch long that last into winter. It grows about 1 to 1.5 feet/year and lives over 300 to 400 years. It has shallow, fibrous, wide-spreading roots and it is somewhat difficult to transplant, but nurseries do that B&B in early spring. Eastern hemlock is sensitive to heat, drought, strong dry winds, heavy or compacted soils, and salt. Many nurseries grow some and it is sort of expensive, but it is a high quality plant. It is common in its native range in the wild and in landscapes. It is occasionally planted in the Chicago area where it is successful in good quality, moist soils and with some shelter from dry, hot, windy conditions. A new insect pest from east Asia, the Asian Hemlock Adelgid or Wooly Aphid, is damaging and killing lots of Hemlocks in areas of the Appalachians. In southeast Pennsylvania so far I have not seen lots of death of trees, maybe because they are not so thickly massed together as in the Appalachians. I expect an eventual victory for the tree in the future.

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Posted by robertduval14 (Mason, New Hampshire - Zone 5b) on Apr 19, 2013 9:03 PM

Pennsylvania's state tree.

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Discussion Threads about this plant
Thread Title Last Reply Replies
Ohio by jmorth Feb 5, 2015 10:42 AM 18
Can someone tell me what this is? by CactusMama1 May 6, 2018 7:16 AM 11
tree by Pete123 Aug 1, 2017 12:24 AM 4
Yardening in the Mid-Atlantic by Eric4home Jan 19, 2020 1:23 PM 3,202
Happy birthday Lorn! by Joebass Jul 22, 2014 10:25 AM 12
Show off your shade! by Trish Aug 27, 2019 7:39 AM 582

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