General Plant Information (Edit)
Plant Habit: Tree
Life cycle: Perennial
Sun Requirements: Full Sun
Full Sun to Partial Shade
Partial or Dappled Shade
Partial Shade to Full Shade
Water Preferences: Wet Mesic
Mesic
Soil pH Preferences: Very strongly acid (4.5 – 5.0)
Strongly acid (5.1 – 5.5)
Moderately acid (5.6 – 6.0)
Slightly acid (6.1 – 6.5)
Neutral (6.6 – 7.3)
Minimum cold hardiness: Zone 3 -40 °C (-40 °F) to -37.2 °C (-35)
Maximum recommended zone: Zone 7b
Plant Height: 40 to 70 feet
Plant Spread: 25 to 35 feet
Leaves: Evergreen
Needled
Fruit: Other: tiny brown cones
Fruiting Time: Late summer or early fall
Fall
Late fall or early winter
Winter
Flowers: Other: tiny soft yellowish male and green female cones
Flower Color: Green
Yellow
Flower Time: Late spring or early summer
Underground structures: Taproot
Uses: Windbreak or Hedge
Provides winter interest
Wildlife Attractant: Birds
Butterflies
Other Beneficial Insects
Resistances: Deer Resistant
Humidity tolerant
Propagation: Seeds: Stratify seeds: cold strat at 40 degrees or so for 2 to 4 months
Pollinators: Wind
Miscellaneous: Monoecious
Conservation status: Near Threatened (NT)

Conservation status:
Conservation status: Near Threatened
Image
Common names
  • Eastern Hemlock
  • Canadian Hemlock

Photo Gallery
Location: Sandhills Horticultural Gardens Southern Pines, NC (Visitor center)
Date: January 27, 2023
Tsuga canadensis, Eastern Hemlock #363 & #156 nn; RAB p. 40, 16-3
Location: Hocking Hills, OH
Date: 2013-06-17
Location: Sandhills Horticultural Gardens Southern Pines, NC (Visitor center)
Date: January 27, 2023
Tsuga canadensis, Eastern Hemlock #363 & #156 nn; RAB p. 40, 16-3
Location: Toledo Botanical Gardens, Toledo, Ohio
Date: 2012-06-03
Immature female cone
Location: Sandhills Horticultural Gardens Southern Pines, NC (Visitor center)
Date: January 27, 2023
Tsuga canadensis, Eastern Hemlock #363 & #156 nn; RAB p. 40, 16-3
Location: Beautiful Tennessee,
Date: 2018-11-05
Location: Bristol, Pennsylvania
Date: 2013-05-15
The Eastern Hemlock is the State tree for Pennsylvania-this one i
Location: Birdsboro, Pennsylvania
Date: 2024-01-18
the evergreen trees along Park Rd at French Creek State Park
Location: Toledo Botanical Gardens, Toledo, Ohio
Date: 2012-06-03
Cones, male and female, young and old.
Location: Fairfax, VA
Location: Fairfax, VA
Location: Opp, AL
Date: 2013-06-17
Location: Hocking Hills, OH
Date: 2013-06-19
Location: Beautiful Tennessee, 
Date: 2018-11-05
Location: Toledo Botanical Gardens, Toledo, Ohio
Date: 2012-06-03
A typical mature specimen of Eastern hemlock
Location: Simcoe County, Ontario
Date: March 2021
Oak / hemlock grove in a wooded area
Location: Simcoe County, Ontario
Date: March 2021
Mature growth on wild specimen
Location: Downingtown, Pennsylvania
Date: 2012-12-23
several of the small cones I put on the driveway
Location: Hocking Hills, OH
Date: 2013-06-19
Location: Hocking Hills, OH
Date: 2013-06-19
Location: Hocking Hills, OH
Date: 2013-07-02
Location: Hocking Hills, OH
Date: 2013-07-02
Location: Hocking Hills, OH
Date: 2013-07-02
Location: Hocking Hills, OH
Date: 2013-07-02
Location: Hocking Hills, OH
Date: 2013-07-02

Date: 2017-07-10
Location: central Illinois
Date: 2015-04-23
new leaves
Location: My garden in N E Pa. 
Date: 2015-02-15
In its natural habitat  PA. forest
Location: Perelman Park, Manheim Township, Lancaster County Pennsylvania
Date: 2016-08-15
Location: Swallow Falls (And Muddy Creek Falls), Maryland | May, 2023
Location: Swallow Falls (And Muddy Creek Falls), Maryland | May, 2023
Location: Swallow Falls (And Muddy Creek Falls), Maryland | May, 2023
Location: Hocking Hills, OH
Date: 2013-06-19
Location: Jardin botanique de Montréal
Date: 2014-07-06
Location: Downingtown, Pennsylvania
Date: 2007-02-03
tree planted in park
Location: Halifax, Pennsylvania
Date: 2019-08-09
looking up full-grown tree trunks
Location: Near Braddock's Road, PA
Date: May 2019
Location: Morton Arboretum
credit: Bruce Marlin

Credit: Moosh | Own work
Location: My garden in N E Pa. 
Date: 2011-10-03
This tree probably started growing on a Nursery Log and it finall
Location: English Gardens, West Bloomfield, MI
Date: 2011-06-13
Location: English Gardens, West Bloomfield, MI
Date: 2011-06-13
Location: English Gardens, West Bloomfield, MI
Date: 2011-06-13
Location: English Gardens, West Bloomfield, MI
Date: 2011-06-13

USDA photo
Location: French Creek State Park in southeast Pennsylvania
Date: 2009-12-24
line of trees in winter
Location: Downingtown, Pennsylvania
Date: 2010-01-14
line of trees in yard
Location: Downingtown, Pennsylvania
Date: winter in 2003
line in yard with telephone-electric lines
Location: Aurora, Illinois
Date: fall in 1980's
full-grown tree in yard
Location: DeKalb, Illinois
Date: winter in 1980's
hemlock hedge
Location: Downingtown, Pennsylvania
Date: 2007-02-03
tiny cones and foliage
Location: Valley Forge Park near Norristown, PA
Date: 2014-01-30
group in park in winter
Location: Thomas Darling Preserve near Blakeslee, PA
Date: 2016-05-20
full-grown wild tree
Location: Audubon estate near Norristown, PA
Date: 2016-06-30
mature trunk
Location: Downingtown, Pennsylvania
Date: 2015-04-17
Asian Hemlock Adelgid white dots on foliage
Location: Halifax, Pennsylvania
Date: 2019-08-09
wild trees along creek
This plant is tagged in:
Image

Comments:
  • Posted by ILPARW (southeast Pennsylvania - Zone 6b) on Jan 21, 2018 7:48 PM concerning plant:
    The Eastern or Canadian Hemlock is a beautiful conifer in the Pine Family. It grows in forests and in cool, moist locations on and around slopes, hills, ravines, hollows from Nova Scotia and southeast Canada, New England down the Appalachian Region into northern Georgia and a little into Alabama, also in northern Michigan & Wisconsin. It has tiny, round-tipped, flat , soft needles directly attached to the twigs. It bears tiny soft yellowish male cones and pale green female cones in late May and early June. The female cones persist and become the tiny brown cones about 3/4 inch long that last into winter. It grows about 1 to 1.5 feet/year and lives over 300 to 400 years. It has shallow, fibrous, wide-spreading roots and it is somewhat difficult to transplant, but nurseries do that B&B in early spring. Eastern hemlock is sensitive to heat, drought, strong dry winds, heavy or compacted soils, and salt. Many nurseries grow some and it is sort of expensive, but it is a high quality plant. It is common in its native range in the wild and in landscapes. It is occasionally planted in the Chicago area where it is successful in good quality, moist soils and with some shelter from dry, hot, windy conditions. A new insect pest from east Asia, the Asian Hemlock Adelgid or Wooly Aphid, is damaging and killing lots of Hemlocks in areas of the Appalachians. In southeast Pennsylvania so far I have not seen lots of death of trees, maybe because they are not so thickly massed together as in the Appalachians. I expect an eventual victory for the tree in the future.
  • Posted by robertduval14 (Milford, New Hampshire - Zone 5b) on Apr 19, 2013 9:03 PM concerning plant:
    Pennsylvania's state tree.
Plant Events from our members
WebTucker On January 31, 2023 Obtained plant
» Post your own event for this plant

Discussion Threads about this plant
Thread Title Last Reply Replies
Ohio by jmorth Feb 5, 2015 10:42 AM 18

« Add a new plant to the database

« The Plants Database Front Page

Today's site banner is by chhari55 and is called "Bougainvillea 'Pink Pixie'"

This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply.