General Plant Information (Edit)
Plant Habit: Herb/Forb
Life cycle: Perennial
Sun Requirements: Partial or Dappled Shade
Partial Shade to Full Shade
Water Preferences: Mesic
Plant Height: 12 - 15 inches
Plant Spread: 6 - 12 inches
Leaves: Unusual foliage color
Spring ephemeral
Other: The above ground parts of Trilliums are scapes with three large, leaf-like bracts with the true leaves reduced to underground papery coverings around the rhizomes.
Flowers: Showy
Flower Color: Pink
White
Bloom Size: 1"-2"
Flower Time: Spring
Underground structures: Rhizome
Uses: Groundcover
Will Naturalize
Toxicity: Roots are poisonous
Fruit is poisonous
Propagation: Seeds: Stratify seeds: 3 months at 40 degrees
Sow in situ
Seeds are hydrophilic
Other info: Plants can be grown from seed, but it can take up to two years for fresh seed to germinate and another five to seven years for plants to bloom.
Propagation: Other methods: Division
Other
Pollinators: Flies
Miscellaneous: Endangered: Maine
Awards and Recognitions: RHS AGM
Other: 2006 Great Plant Picks award winner; Floral Emblem of Ontario, Canada; State Wildflower of Ohio, United States

Image
Common names
  • Great White Trillium
  • Large-flowered Trillium
  • White Trillium
  • Trillium
  • Wake Robin
  • Large White Trillium
  • Large-flower Wakerobin
  • Trinity Lily
  • American Wood Lily

Photo Gallery
Location: my garden in Dawsonville, GA (zone 7b north Geogia mountains)
Date: 2022-04-04
Location: my Zone 7b garden in North Georgia Mountains
Date: 2023-03-13
Location: Ed Burton, NE Wisconsin
Date: 2015-05-03
growing in same spot for over 20 years
Location: Jenkins Arboretum, Devon, Pennsylvania
Date: 2021-05-02

Date: 2018-05-04
Location: My garden in N E Pa. 
Date: 2008-04-23
Location: Utrecht Botanical Garden
Date: 2023-03-25
Location: Pleasant Grove, Utah
Date: 2011-05-13
Location: Washington 8b
Date: 2017-04-05
Location: my Zone 7b garden in North Georgia Mountains
Date: 2023-03-03
Location: New York Botanical Gardens Bronx NY
Date: April 2022
Full sun.
Location: Natural woodlands in northeastern Indiana
Date: 2012-04-07
Natural habitat - shown with Jack-in-the-pulpit and post-bloom Tr
Location: z5a, Smith College Botanical Garden
Date: 2012-04-20
Location: Southern Maine
Date: 2020-05-30
Location: Hidden Lake Gardens, Michigan
Date: 2015-05-14
Trillium grandiflorum - the trillium equivalent of getting gray h
Location: In the Missouri Botanical Garden in Saint Louis
Date: Spring, 2004
Great White Trillium (Trillium grandiflorum) 001
Location: Iowa
Location: Aurora, On
Date: 2017-05-16
Location: Maine
Location: My garden in N E Pa. 
Date: 2015-05-05
Location: Natural woodlands in northeastern Indiana
Date: 2012-04-07
Location: my Zone 7b garden in North Georgia Mountains
Date: 2023-03-24

Date: c. 1890
illustration from the 1890 catalog, Southwick Nurseries, Southwic
Location: Simcoe County, Ontario
Date: May 6, 2021
Location: Iowa
Date: 2018-05-08
Location: Castlegar BC
Date: May 14 2017
My Wake Robin is a bit late this year
Location: Washington
Date: 2016-04-02
Location: My garden in southeast Nebraska
Date: 2012-04-09
Location: Aurora, On
Date: 2010-05-13
Location: my garden in Dawsonville, GA (zone 7b north Geogia mountains)
Date: 2022-03-21

Date: 2017-05-21
Purchased at Garden in the Woods many years ago.  My soil tends t
Location: Maine
Date: 2013-05-07
Location: Aurora, On
Date: 2010-05-01

Date: c. 1902
illustration from L. H. Bailey's 'Cyclopedia of American Horticul
Photo by KEVININK

Photo credit: СССР
Location: Keystone State Park, PA
Date: May 2019
Location: Burlington, On
Date: 2010-04-19
Location: Mt. Cuba Center, Hockessin, Delaware USA
Date: 2018-04-22
Location: Koffler Scientific Reserve, Ontario, Canada
Image by Spencer C. H. Barrett, University of Toronto

Photo Courtesy of Prairie Nursery. Used with Permission
  • Uploaded by Joy
Location: Longwood Gardens, Kennett Square, PA
Date: 2016-04-28
Location: Mt. Cuba Center
Date: April
photo by Derek Ramsey
Location: Vaughan, ON, Canada (Zone 5b)
Date: 2012-05-13
Location: Simcoe County, Ontario
Date: April 27, 2021
Bloom, nearly unfurled
Location: my garden in Dawsonville, GA (zone 7b north Geogia mountains)
Date: 2021-04-06
The blossom changes from white to pink as it ages
Location: my garden in Dawsonville, GA (zone 7b north Geogia mountains)
Date: 2021-04-06
Location: Natural Area in Northeastern Indiana - Zone 5b
Date: 2012-04-26
White bloom coloration often turns pink for a few days before blo
Location: Allentown, Pennsylvania
Date: 2015-04-22
Location: Ed Burton, NE Wisconsin
Date: 2014-05-11
Photo by plantcollector
Photo by plantcollector
Photo by plantcollector
Photo by mistyfog
Location: My Northeastern Indiana Gardens - Zone 5b
Date: 2012-04-07
Side view

Date: 2012-04-16
Location: Natural Area in Northeastern Indiana
Date: 2012-05-05
Growing wild
Location: Litchfield, NH
Date: 2014-05-15
Color change from white to pink as flowers fade - rear bloom is o

Photo Courtesy of Lazy S'S Farm Nursery.
  • Uploaded by Joy
Location: Hood, Alabama
Location: Pleasant Grove, Utah
Date: 2012-04-26
In a friends garden
Location: z5a, Smith College Botanical Garden
Date: 2012-04-20

Photo Courtesy of Busse Gardens. Used with permission.
  • Uploaded by Joy
Location: Lucketts, Loudoun County, Virginia
Date: 2013-04-19
Location: Vaughan, ON, Canada (Zone 5b)
Date: 2013-05-15
Location: In the Missouri Botanical Garden in Saint Louis
Date: Spring, 2004
Great White Trillium (Trillium grandiflorum) 002
Location: My Garden
Date: 2013-05-26

Courtesy Gardens in the Wood of Grassy Creek
  • Uploaded by vic
Photo by plantcollector
Photo by plantcollector
Photo by plantcollector

Photo courtesy of Longfield Gardens
  • Uploaded by Joy

Photo courtesy of Longfield Gardens
  • Uploaded by Joy
Location: Harrogate Spring Flower Show 2015, Yorkshire, UK
Date: 2015-04-25
Roseum form
Location: garden of botanist Robert R. Kowal in Madison, Wisconsin
photo by James Steakley
Location: Natural woodlands in northeastern Indiana
Date: 2012-04-07
Location: Natural woodlands in northeastern Indiana
Date: 2012-04-07
Location: My garden in Kentucky
Date: 2008-06-02
Bottom middle of the photo. Flowers are done blooming.
Location: My garden in Kentucky
Date: 2008-06-02
Right central of the photo next to the rocks. Flowers are done bl
Location: Pleasant Grove, Utah
Date: 2012-05-01
In a friend's garden
Location: Pleasant Grove, Utah
Date: 2012-04-26
In a friends garden
Location: Pleasant Grove, Utah
Date: 2012-04-26
In a friends garden
This plant is tagged in:
Image Image Image Image Image Image

Comments:
  • Posted by SongofJoy (Clarksville, TN - Zone 6b) on Jan 15, 2012 1:19 PM concerning plant:
    Undoubtedly the best known, most widely grown, and maybe the most satisfying of all the species to grow, Trillium grandiflorum has a very large natural range over nearly the entire eastern United States and southern Canada down to the mountains of Alabama, Georgia, and Tennessee. If you have ever been in the rich woods and coves of the southern Appalachians in mid-to-late spring or in fertile woodlands of Michigan or Ohio, you have doubtless seen the incredible beauty of these plants growing in great abundance. Flowers are large, up to 6 inches across, and start out white turning pink as they age. Mature plants may have many stems up to 15 inches tall, but it takes some time to make a big clump. A big clump or many small ones is very beautiful. This beauty has also led to the plants near demise as it is probably the wildflower that is dug from the wild in the greatest numbers. Grow them in the shade of deciduous trees where they enjoy sunny days in the spring but then go dormant and rest in the shade for the rest of the year. They want good, humus-rich, limey soil and like to stay evenly moist. (Sunlight Gardens)
  • Posted by robertduval14 (Milford, New Hampshire - Zone 5b) on Apr 16, 2013 7:41 PM concerning plant:
    Ohio's state wildflower.
  • Posted by Marilyn (Kentucky - Zone 6a) on May 25, 2013 3:56 AM concerning plant:
    "Trillium grandiflorum favors well-drained, neutral to slightly acid soils, usually in second- or young-growth forests. In the Northern parts of its range it shows an affinity for maple or beech forests, but has also been known to spread into nearby open areas. Depending on geographical factors, it flowers from late April to early June, just after T. erectum. Like many forest perennials, T. grandiflorum is a slow growing plant. Its seeds require double dormancy, meaning they normally take at least two years to fully germinate. Like most species of Trillium, flowering age is determined largely by the surface of the leaf and volume of the rhizome the plant has reached instead of age alone. Because growth is very slow in nature, T. grandiflorum typically requires seven to ten years in optimal conditions to reach flowering size, which corresponds to a minimum of 36 cm2 (5.6 sq in) of leaf surface area and 2.5 cm3 (0.15 cu in) of rhizome volume. In cultivation, however, wide disparity of flowering ages are observed.

    Fruits are released in the summer, containing about 16 seeds on average. These seeds are most typically dispersed by ants, which is called myrmecochory, but yellow jackets (Vespula vulgaris) and harvestmen (order Opiliones) have both been observed dispersing the seeds at lower frequencies. Insect dispersal is aided by the presence of a conspicuous elaiosome, an oil-rich body attached to the seed, which is high in both lipids and oleic acid. The oleic acid induces corpse-carrying behavior in ants, causing them to bring the seeds to their nesting sites as if they were food. As ants visit several colonies of the plant, they bring genetically variable seeds back to a single location, which after germination results in a new population with relatively high genetic diversity.

    Trillium grandiflorum as well as other trilliums are a favored food of white-tailed deer."

    Taken from wikipedia's page at: Taken from wikipedia's page at:
Plant Events from our members
aspenhill On April 30, 2016 Obtained plant
Lurgan Greenhouse - qty 3; HSG Area 6
aspenhill On January 12, 2015 Obtained plant
McClure and Zimmerman - qty 3; X-SA
aspenhill On February 26, 2014 Obtained plant
American Meadows - qty 3; X-SA
MissMew On May 13, 2020 Obtained plant
Added 3 more - Suzanne NVK
MissMew On May 18, 2018 Obtained plant
Added more. Suzanne NVK
MissMew On June 11, 2016 Obtained plant
nativeplants.ca
SuperHappyCamper On February 4, 2022 Obtained plant
Purchased from Costco.
» Post your own event for this plant

« Add a new plant to the database

» Search the Trilliums Database: by characteristics or by cultivar name

« See the general plant entry for Trilliums (Trillium)

« The Trilliums Database Front Page

« The Plants Database Front Page

Today's site banner is by dirtdorphins and is called "Crocus"

This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply.