It looks like Cats Claw vine to me. I'm in S. Texas and have been fighting it in my yard. Most of the tubers I have pulled up are about radish size, but some have been as large as a sweet potato!
It has yellow blooms for a short time and bean pods later on.
I looked it up and painting the cuts with 100% Glyphosphate is a control. Here is a link to the site I found.
One thing I tried last summer was to fill baggies with brush killer and peg them to the vines, stuffing as much of the vine into the bag as possible. This spring I will try Vine and brush killer at 100%.
Hope this helps because I want it gone too.