I am in your neighboring state in the deep South. I second what Christopher said about the Chinas, teas, and noisettes being well suited down here. But roses are quite varies in appearance and uses in the landscape. If you have your heart set on more hybrid tea forms, there are certainly some that will do fine with the right care. There are many others that will struggle no matter what.
To be clear, spring is a perfectly fine time to plant. I suspect yours drowned, based on your description. It seems a paradox, but roses are thirsty plants that can't tolerate standing water for more than two or three days.
Be encouraged, though. An even slightly raised planting area, say, 4 or 5 inches aboves the surrounding area, is usually adequate to solve drainage problems. I should know. My yard is pure clay with ZERO drainage. I have roses in a 10 inch raised bed, and others simply surrounded by a plastic lawn edging about 4 inches, with compost and mulch added. They all do fine.
What you really need to avoid is creating a soup bowl affect by a hole amended with good soil but surounded by poor soil the water will be trapped in that. Mound up, rather than dig down, and you will have more success. The roses will still send anchor roots down but will keep most of their feeder roots up top.
A few varieites that have done well for me have two qualities, heat tolerance and blackspot resistance. Some roses are also a bit more tolerant of partial shade, but none take full shade.
Some of my favorites:
Madame Antoine Marie, an elegant old soft pink blend tea.
Belinda's Dream, modern shrub that blooms like a hybrid tea, phlox pink.
Double Knockout, red shrub a bit shaplier, more full blooms than the original knockout, just as bullet proof.
Posseidon, fragrant lavender floribbunda.
Plum Perfect, deep plum floribunda.
Tiffany, intensely sweet warm pink blend hybrid tea, will blackspot but not defoliate.
Easy Spirit, a new soft white hybrid tea with slight blush...very rainspot-resistant and healthy.
New Dawn, a LARGE blush pink climber, relately shade tolerant and carefree, just give it room; my mature over 15 feet tall.
Savannah, salmon pink intensely fragrant.
There are many others.