Yes, I also tend to plant when really young, but only in cases of plants I am sure are hardy.
But I have lost a lot of seedlings, cause I only go to my garden a couple of times a week.
IF I'm not there to water the seedlings, most of them DIE.
In cases with such plants... I think the bigger the plant, bulb, rhizome is... the higher chances of survival.
I also planted out in the garden two Arisaema that were supposed to be hardy at least one Zone below mine, and they died.
I'm thinking they were not big enough.
Maybe a 50-50% approach?
Like... plant half of them now, and keep the rest in pot?
I do this even with some hard to find seeds... sow half, and keep the other half till I see what goes on with the first half :)
I would still wait till late summer, even fall. Arisaema, as far as I can tell, don't have a long growing season. Your babies, I doubt they will produce another leaf. SO keep them as they are, take care of them, and when the leaves turn yellow, you can plant half of them in the garden and the other half spread out in the pot.