You can grow most annuals in containers for cutting and/or enjoyment outside. Among the considerations are 1. containers dry out faster and have to be watered more often 2. size of plant and how many per container 3. Good potting soil and 4. fertilizer to keep your blooms keep coming, giving the plants the nutrients they need.
You also want to pay attention to the "date to maturity" if you're planting from seed. For instance, zinnias usually bloom 60 days after transplant and go right thru fall....depending on where you are, you may have a shorter or longer growing season
This year, for example, I wintersowed zinnias but rather than put them in the garden, I wanted them "up close and personal" on my deck in large planter (I have a number of large pots on my deck and plant annuals to enjoy). I probably put too many seedlings in the pot because they are over 3' tall and had to be watered sometimes twice a day (we had severe drought). Next year I'll grow zinnias, but will make sure I choose a variety that is shorter. I wintersow ALOT of things and plant many on my deck including celosia, petunias, salvia, coleus. Coleus is a staple on my deck because there are so many pretty colors and they love the shade side.
Some other of the easier flowers to grow for cutting are:
Some have a shorter bloom period and some like rudbeckia and some cosmos varieties dont bloom til mid summer where I am