Right now you could plant some tomatoes and peppers, if you're willing to protect them a little bit, through December and January. We can harvest tomatoes all the way until May here in Florida as long as you don't let the plants get too chilled that they go dormant and stop blooming or setting fruit.
Best things for bearing through the coolest months are the cabbage relatives - broccoli, cauliflower, kale etc. Start them in October, or whenever you get the first cold front that cools the night temperatures. I wait until December to sow any lettuce as it still gets too warm here for it to stay sweet if I start it earlier. Other greens like corn salad and Mesclun greens mix (mustards and arugula etc.) can be sown in late October.
If you put some potatoes on a dark shelf about now, you can plant the sprouted ones in January for a great harvest of 'new' potatoes in March or April.