Ok, I can see trying to grow them for those fabulous flowers. You're right, though. Whatever gloves you try should probably be smooth, not mesh. That rules out the Kevlar ones I was thinking of, too. The welding gloves I have are suede which would also catch, but I think they make them out of smooth fabric, too.
Wait! What are we thinking, just get in there with your nail scissors and cut off the thorn tips just before you are going to re-pot the plants! (then keep your fingers away from the middles where the new thorns are) You only need to cut off enough thorns so you can get your hands underneath the plants to pick them up.
Now, I just went back to look at your picture in the original post. Why do you need to re-pot them again? Broms really don't collect all that much nutrition through their roots. Roots are mostly just anchoring the plants. They're major foliar feeders so I wouldn't cut off any green leaves if you can help it. Guess you could put them in a shallower pot, so they could spill over better.
When I move my broms, it involves no digging - pick them up from where they're growing and put them down in the new spot. The roots just hold them upright. I do stake them until they stand on their own in the new spot . . sometimes . .