Hi Lisa. Welcome to ATP.
First, can you update your info and tell us where you are? We won't be of much help without that information.
I hope your deck is BIG! Thats a lot of stuff. Use at least 10 or 15 gallon containers, the bigger the better. Containers are fun because you can over-plant them. You are controlling the nutrients and the water supply and there is no chance of those things leaching out into the rest of the garden. This only works for plants that are annual. Some of your plants will be with you for years.
Also, the containers need to be insulated against the summer heat. Plants don't like their roots warm; that's the fastest way to kill them.
I can't help you with the soil as I don't know the proportions you used. But I would have suggested you buy potting soil and 1 bag of manure and skipped all the rest. Garden soil is made to be mixed with the native soil. Potting soil doesn't need amending; its complete. So the topsoil, garden soil, and peat Moss aren't needed and may just be so over the top that everything you plant will instantly burn.
Use manure in moderation on cucumbers, melons and squash. The tomatoes and peppers may never set fruit if they have too much.
Asperagus won't produce an edible crop for several years. The blueberries and fig tree are permanent crops so will need pots to themselves. The strawberries will have to be re-potted every spring as the plants only produce for a year (two at the most). The original plants are discarded and the offsets planted.