As a comment about Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum)
Here's a list of some tomato varieties said to ripen unusually early, and/or to have unusual cold tolerance.
For example, in the PNW, 'Oregon Spring' can be planted four weeks before the last frost, and needs protection only when there's frost.
These were compiled by reading and comparing descriptions, with frequent reference to the Territorial Seed Company catalog that ranks tomato performance in Cottage Grove, Oregon.
Determinate varieties ("DET") spread laterally, may not need stakes or trellises, and ripen "all at once". Indeterminate varieties (INDET) grow vertically, need trellises, and ripen over the whole season.
I'd appreciate corrections, additions and comments.
ULTRA-EARLY & COLD-TOLERANT:
'Glacier' - ultra-early, cold-tolerant, SEMI-DET
'Stupice' - ultra-early, cold-tolerant, compact DET
- - - Not a heavy fruit bearer, and the fruit splits for some
'Northern Delight' - ultra-early, "for the Far North", 2' DET
'Beaverlodge' series - ultra-early, compact DET, containers (not sure about cold tolerance)
EXTRA-EARLY & COLD-TOLERANT:
'Manitoba' - extra-early, cold-tolerant, 3'-4' DET, "Canadian for colder climates"
'Matina' - extra-early, INDET, "dependable even in cold/wet summers"
- - - early and flavorful and bore a lot of fruit over a long period.
'Sub-Artic Plenty' - extra-early, "Canadian", DET
'Oregon Spring' - extra-early, very cold-tolerant, "plant 4 wks before last frost
- - - & protect only when there's frost"
Sophie's Choice: Heirloom from Edmonton, Canada, by Carolyn Male in 1997.
- - - Extra early, flavorful. 2' DET vines suited to containers.
- - - 6-12 ounce globes red-orange outside and deep red flesh. Strong disease resistance.
- - - Not heat-tolerant or drought-tolerant. Best production in cooler climates.
'Early Wonder' - extra-early, 3'-4' SEMI-DET, med red globe
'Siletz' - extra-early, reliable, DET, 4"-5" red
'Ildi' - extra-early, yellow grape pear, 8'-10' INDET
'Gold Nugget' - extra-early, 2-3' DET, bland yellow cherry
'Sungold' F1 - extra-early, 4'-8' INDET, containers, orange cherry
- - - tends to split for me
'Yellow Plum' - early, productive even in cold, 4'-6' INDET, yellow cherry
'Bloody Butcher' - early, cool climate, 4'-6'
'Maskabec' - early, 18"-36" DET, 4-6 oz. red globe
'Golden Rave' (hybrid) - early, gold Roma plum6'-8' INDET
'Husky Cherry Red' - early, semi-DET or dwarf INDET
'Sub Artic Cherry' - early, DET, pink, "developed in Alberta for short seasons"
'Early Cascade' - (hybrid but seems pretty true) - early, short-summer, PNW,
- - - "reliable: sets fruit in any climate", red-orange
'Marmande' - semi-early, cool climate, med-large red beefsteak type, full flavor
'Early Girl' (hybrid) - semi-early, med red globe, flavorful
- - Early Girl isn't very flavorful nor does it produce over a long period of time
'Santa Cherry' / 'Santa Sweets' - mid-season, tolerates cool summers, 4'-8' INDET
'Morden Yellow' - mid-late, Canadian for colder climates, 2'-3' DET, med yellow globe