Growing veggies indoors can work very well, but it does all depend upon how much light you're able to supply to the plants. If you have a window that gets every bit of direct sunlight, AND you live in a place where it is pretty sunny in the winter, you wouldn't need to supplement with grow lights. I lived in Vancouver, BC when I first started trying to grow herbs on the windowsill, and darnit, the days were just SO short and grey in winter there wasn't enough light for the plants to survive even in the sunniest window. If I knew then what I know now . . y'know?
So, the first thing it depends upon is where you are? If you would fill in your profile with your location (city and state or country, not just a zone) that will tell us more about how sunny it is in winter where you are.
Second thing is temperature - most people keep their houses in the 70's during the day and not much lower than 60's at night. This is fine for some things that like cool weather, but others like okra, some peppers and tomatoes won't even flower unless the temps are warmer during the day. So stick with cool growers like the green onions, salad greens, parsley and chives, kale and other cabbage family, and the root veggies for greens like your beet greens should do well.
Garlic takes almost a full year to grow a nice big bulb, so I'd wait now, and plant it in the early spring outside. It's too late to fall-plant it now in most areas of the northern hemisphere.