They should be fine in the ground over winter. Surprised they didn't bloom as bulbs; when bought they should already have the energy potential and size to bloom. Did you plant them at the recommended depth?
Not for sure what you are describing with the term 'tubes'. If you are referring to the flower scape, they usually fall off in fall; or you can remove them at your leisure.
I don't think I've ever fertilized mine, most reliably return yearly. Check the planting instructions for their recommendation.
I'm in a colder zone and not all the ornamental alliums return. A. schubertii, A. caeruleum, A. christophii, and A. karataviense are ify for 2nd season bloom at best (for me).
The tall big round ones are reliable returners here.