We have a planting calendar on site that should answer some of those questions. Just go here and enter your location: https://garden.org/apps/calend...
Tomatoes and peppers do well started early indoors (I have some started upstairs right now)
What veggies are you thinking of growing?
You'll probably want a source of bottom heat to germinate your seeds. There are lots of heat mats out there. Seedling trays with humidity domes are also nice, although not absolutely necessary. Do you have a spot that gets some sun? Even if you do, you'll still need to provide a source of additional light, e.g. grow lights or fluorescent lights.