It might be better to split your questions into individual posts which makes them easier to answer/notice so may get more response. I can try and answer some of them.
If by starting seeds in soil you sifted yourself you mean in pots or trays, no it's not the best thing to use you'd be better off with a commercial seed starting mix or at least amend the sifted soil to make it work better in containers. If it's for outdoors in the garden then yes.
Is sifted soil the same as top soil. Maybe similar but not necessarily.
Starting the coriander inside you would be best to have a plastic cover/dome, moisten the soil once and then keep the dome on until the first ones germinate. We can't give you a specific watering schedule because it depends on the individusl situation. Not sure I understand what you mean by what different types of soil does coriander grow in.
I don't know why the edges of your polka dot plant are turning brown. Can you post a picture? Without seeing it the first thought would be not enough water or too much fertilizer or both.
Oregano inside needs a lot of light and enough water that the soil is not completely dry all the time.
No to growing beans indoors.
I think your aloe may just not be growing as fast as you are expecting but oherwise there's not enough information to answer the question.
I'm not familiar with rabbits foot plant.
That's my two cents worth